What is SMT in PCB Assembly and How is It Done?

Technological advancements have significantly changed the lives of men today. From the development of the earliest electronic devices, up to the latest inventions, we have been benefiting from these gadgets greatly. But have you ever wondered how these device works?

Every electronic device is composed of circuitries, made up of electronic components assembled or soldered on a printed circuit board (PCB). The components and the circuit board are joined together in a process called PCB assembly. In circuit board assembly, there are various mounting technologies that are used today. The latest and most preferred of these technologies is called Surface Mount technology (SMT), or planar mounting.

SMT was developed in the 1960s and gained popularity in the 1980s. Because of its advancement, it eventually bested out its competitors in the industry. In fact, 90% of the majority prefers this mounting technology.

SMT has also become the solution to the various problems of its predecessors, providing different advantages and ease in PCB assembly today. Some examples of these advantages include:

  • Surface mount components (SMCI) were made smaller compared to the other components, taking lesser space on the board. This allows more components to be soldered on the circuit board.
  • Pin count of components greatly increased
  • Production cost per unit was reduced.
  • SMC can be mounted on both sides of the PCB.

PCB Assembly

 

In SMT, the components are mounted directly on the PCB. It involves several processes, involving the following:

 

1. Apply the soldering paste:

Before mounting the components on the circuit board, the solder paste should be applied. Solder paste is powder metal solder mixed with flux. It is used to connect electronic components on the surface of the circuit board.

Solder paste is applied on component pads using a solder stencil or screen. To apply using a screen, place the tool to the areas where solder is required. Squeeze the solder paste onto the screen holes and onto the circuit board as you move the runner across the screen.

To apply using a stencil, tape down the large and small L-shaped board fixtures to prevent them from moving. Then place the PCB in it. Put the stencil over the SMT pads and make sure it is aligned. Apply the solder paste from one point and run it across the holes.

Make sure to control the amount of solder pasted you deposit. This is to guarantee that the resulting joints have the correct quantity of solder.

2. Run through the pick and place machine:

Circuit Board AssemblyOnce the solder paste is applied, it will then pass into the pick and place machine. The said machine contains the electronic components, which will be dispensed on their designated spots on the circuit board accurately.

With the PCB design information, the machine is programmed to position the components correctly on the surface of the board. The solder paste applied previously also makes the components be held in place.

3. Solder the components onto the circuit board:

In SMT, the electronic components are soldered onto the circuit board with the reflow technique. In this soldering technique, the components and the PCB go through a conveyor oven. The heat of the oven will then melt the solder paste, joining the components and the board together.

4. Clean the circuit board:

After soldering, flux residues should be removed from the circuit board. There are various ways to do this, including the use of cleaning agents, use of heat, and agitation.

5. Inspect for quality assurance:

Once cleaned, the assembled PCB will then be sent for inspection. In SMT PCB assembly, manual checking is not preferable for boards with hundreds of components. Instead, automatic optical inspection (AOI) is favored.

In AOI, machines are used to detect mislaid components, poor joints, and even incorrect components. On the other hand, other inspection techniques such as sample checks and automatic x-ray inspection can also be performed.

6. Test the assembled circuit boards:

To ensure that the circuit boards are working, a series of tests must be performed. For instance, in-circuit test (ICT) is performed to check each component for possible errors and mistakes, such as open and short circuits.

In ICT, a specialist automated test equipment (ATE) is required to perform the manufacturing defects analysis (MDA).

7. Reworking:

Reworking is usually done if a component is found malfunctioning. In this process, defective parts are replaced and undergo reheating to solder them onto the board’s surface.

Each process in SMT PCB assembly is complex and requires careful attention to achieve a fully working device. And thanks to this process, we are able to enjoy the gadgets we much love today.

 

How To Attain That Motivational-Speaker-Success

Becoming a motivational speaker is a profession. It requires skill, training and continual practice to become effective when relaying a message to the public. Being able to inspire your audience through speech is an actual business and must be treated seriously. It is a paid profession where your only investments are your wit and wisdom. If you’re thinking of becoming a motivational speaker and experience that motivational-speaker-success you have always been dreaming about, here are some tips you might want to consider:

Know your audience.

Motivational speakerIt is important for a speaker to know his audience. The audience, as we all know, are those who will be listening to your message. Most of the audience do not know you, or may have just met you for the first time. You must know their interests, or the things they want to listen to. Before actually accepting an offer to become a motivational speaker, you must first ask the host of the event regarding the audiences you will be facing – are they going to be professionals, students, or celebrities? Just ask! It would cost you no harm. That way, you will know what to say and how to say it. You will be able to create a bond with your addressees. Through the connection you have established, the speech will become more interactive.

Be confident.

Stage fright? A motivational speaker does not know that! As someone who talks to inspire people, motivational speakers are not supposed to be afraid about the idea of talking to the public. Speakers must be full of confidence. They must establish trust among their audience that they know what they are talking about. They should be confident with every word that comes out of their mouth. As an aspiring motivational speaker, try building your confidence first at home. You can use a mirror to talk to yourself – watch yourself as you speak.

You may also request your family to become your audience. That way, they could judge whether what you’re doing is right or wrong. Just keep practicing until you finally have boosted your self-confidence. When you’re ready, you might want to accept low-cost public speaking jobs near your home. This would let you gain personal experiences. Finally, when you feel like you have mastered the said skill already, you might want to consider applying for highly-paid public speaking jobs outside the country – where you get to meet different types of audiences, and gain a lot of knowledge and experiences.

Motivational speakers

Garrison W. Wynn is one of those people who are experiencing that motivational-speaker-success. He has been invited as a keynote speaker of different companies and organizations including Indiana University, Sci Quest, National Business Aviation Administration, and many others. Many have personally seen his YouTube videos while public speaking, and he is honestly one of the best. He speaks fluently and all the wisdoms he’s sharing are from the heart.

He’s very energetic and he also enthusiastically engages with his audience. He’s been receiving so many positive reviews from large establishments including American Express, Subway, United Airlines and a lot more. Now seriously, if you want to be like Garrison Wynn and experience the same motivational-speaker-success he’s been having for years, you might want to check him out. Go to YouTube or search for his website on the internet.

Improve yourself.

Keynote speakerOopsie! You might be a great speaker already, but don’t ever fall into complacency. There are other people who wants to become just like you – a great speaker who inspires so many people from different places. Some of them might even be doing better than you. So never stop improving yourself! Look for seminars and/or trainings that will help you out and guide you to becoming better. Learning should be a continuous process, so never stop gaining knowledge and experiences. If possible, try new things daily. Having so many experiences broadens your knowledge and widens your idea. That way, you will have so many things you can share with your audience in different settings.

Motivational speakers are paid pretty fairly; plus, they inspire so many people by sharing their wit and wisdom, So if you’re planning to become an effective motivational speaker, you may want to follow the three simple tips mentioned above. By following the said tips, you will be having that motivational-speaker-success you have always been dreaming about!

Why Golf Iron Sets Are Ideal For Golfers

Golf is popular in the United States and has become a hobby of many Americans. Playing golf requires an individual to have a comprehensive understanding of the game, field equipment, and the strategies involved. If you are a beginner, you may first want to borrow clubs while practicing. Once you learn the game, you can purchase your own golf iron sets.

Different Type Of Golf Clubs As Follows:

Golf clubs are the long stick-like equipment used to hit the ball. There are actually many types of clubs – irons, wedges, woods, putter, and hybrid. The most important thing to remember is – without golf club, no golf game.

GolfIrons are short clubs commonly made of steel alloy with a metal head which consist of a flat and angled striking face. They can be used for a variety of shots from anywhere, but are more effective at shorter distances. Wedges are also irons, but have separate groups. The three groups are lob wedge, gap wedge, and sand wedge.

Woods are classified with large heads and long shafts used to hit the ball to long distances from the open lies. These clubs have been widely used to make extremely long shots, which can go until 300 yards. Woods are usually made of titanium.

Putters are commonly used on the green to propel the ball into the hole. Originally from the iron club family, these have been made to balance a golf ball with a low degree of angle.

Hybrids evolved from and irons and woods which are usually seen in replacing irons. Hybrid and irons make same distances, but they are more forgiving in nature. These clubs hit farther compared to woods.

Golf Iron SetsWith the different types of clubs mentioned above, the golfer is only allowed to bring 14 golf clubs in the field during a game. This maximum count is stated in the guidelines and instructions, which every golfer must be aware of. Anyone who violates it can be disqualified. Before the game starts, the field will be cleared and the equipment will be checked.

Golf iron sets have cavity back irons which can be faked, but they are usually cast. Having a cavity at the back of the iron head reduces weight from the center of the club face. This means that the club head’s mass is more directed around the edges or perimeter of the club head. The changes of the club head’s physical appearance and mass adjust the impact between the club face and ball. When this is achieved, the iron will be easier to hit. Handicapped players prefer cavity back irons because of their forgiving characteristics.

Taylormade GolfThe process mentioned above is called “perimeter weighting”. It is simply defined as the even distribution of the club head weight around the club. This term is always referred to irons, but can be applied to other golf clubs as well. This is done by “scooping” out a portion of the materials behind the club head, which creates a cavity back. The removal of material from the certain area changes the weighting properties, which then allows more material to be added around the perimeter.

Professional golfers who have their own golf iron sets may also bring their golf shoes in the area. These special shoes have plastic or metal spikes specifically intended to add grip and traction while playing. This will allow the player to manage more his swings and hits. Golf bags are available in every field where the player can put his clubs and other equipment. Whenever there is a need to bring extra gloves, wiping cloths, or golf balls, these bags have pockets fit for other golf iron sets and other materials. These bags are creatively styled for the convenience of golfers.

Step-by-Step Guide for Article Writing

veryRegardless of how much or how little experience you might have in writing, it is still possible for you to become a successful article writer. As long as you are able to put pen to paper or type cohesive sentences using a keyboard, then it should be quite simple for you to create a good article that is worthy of being published. To help you hone your article writing skills as well as assist you in creating good article drafts, listed below are a few tips that you can use to help you become a successful article writer.

Choose a good topic

Choosing an interesting topic or concept is one of the basics of article writing. Though your personal interests might not necessarily capture the attention of a large audience, there is always a market for even the most obscure concepts.

It is often better to focus on a topic that you consider to be engaging and interesting. This way, you will be able to write more spontaneously and produce more creative output.

Nevertheless, you should try to reign in your creative juices at some point since a good writer should always have some form of structure or direction. Make sure that your topic is wide enough to provide a wealth of information without being too general or broad. For example, instead of writing about all of your favorite dog breeds, you could focus on one breed at a time and write a more comprehensive and specific article without burning yourself out.

Do your research

There is a wealth of knowledge available online. Likewise, books, magazines, and even newspapers can serve as good references for anyone engaged in article writing. Additionally, different sources do not only provide you with useful facts and statistics, but they can also provide you with interesting angles or points of view regarding a single topic.

timeline-engagementReferences can help you learn about a new interest or topic. Also, they can reintroduce an old topic and help you see it in a new light. They can provide you with quotes, examples, definitions, anecdotes, etc. that you can use to enrich your article.Once you have found a good direction for your article, you can easily utilize all of the available information and sources to create something that is uniquely yours and is written with your personal perspective.

Keep it tight

As previously mentioned, article writing is all about being informative but concise. A short and simple article is always more enticing than an endless series of paragraphs.

Always remember that a writer should write for his audience. This means that he should always put their needs first at all times and this includes giving them the information that they need without wasting their time. Eliminate any excess phrases or words and make your article as tight as you can without making it lightweight or sloppy.

Narrow down your topic to a few key points and build on those as you go along. This way, you will be able to stop yourself from rambling while simultaneously organizing your article into a more readable format.

Proofread and revise

Unfortunately, proofreading is a crucial step that many writers forget about when it comes to article writing. However if you truly want to succeed as an article writer, then you should always remember to go through everything that you write before you even consider sending it in to an editor.

writingThough there will always be something that your editor will prefer to omit or revise in your first draft, it is still essential that you practice proper spelling, punctuation, and grammar in everything that you write. Read each sentence again and again until you are satisfied. You can also read your work aloud to be sure. Once you are content with your article, you can then take the next step and submit it to an editor who can publish your work on an appropriate publication or platform.